Aisin-Gioro Puyi


1906, February 7 (Beijing)




Politician: non-hereditary positions held include Chief Executive of the Manchu State. Hereditary Emperor of Manchukuo (1934-1948) and Emperor of China (1908-1912, 1917, 1948-)


House of Aisin-Gioro, Qing Dynasty of China and Manchukuo


Empress Wanrong (married 1922), plus Concubines


Yuan Shikai (as Han Emperor of the Chinese Empire, 1917), Pujie (as Qing Emperor of Manchukuo, 1948), Puren (as Qing Emperor of Great China, 1977), Yuyan (as Head of the Imperial House of Aisin-Gioro, 1977)


Last Emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty prior to the declaration of the Republic of China in 1912. Briefly restored in 1917, under Japanese tutelege from 1931, Puyi was placed at the head of a puppet Manchukuo, becoming its Emperor in 1934. In 1948 he abdicated in favour of his younger brother, Pujie, in order to resume his title as Emperor of All China.

As Emperor of Manchuria he was known as the Kangde Emperor, while in his role as ruler of China he was the Xuantong Emperor.

Puyi's first prime minister, Wang Jingwei, was a close friend of Yuan Keding, the son of Yuan Shikai, the Han who ruled as Emperor between 1915 and 1916. Though Keding rejected the offer of cooperation with the Japanese, he and his family were kept on at Beijing as potential replacements for Puyi's Manchu Dynasty. Yuyan, Puyi's cousin was also considered a potential replacement for the emperors of both China and Manchuria.

Though his brother controls the Qing's ancestral homeland, Puyi's empire ws smaller than that of his forebears: Taiwan, the Ryukyu Kingdom, Tuva, Mongolia, Tibet and East Turkistan have all been detatched from Chinese suzerainty by Japan.