Muhammad Ali Jinnah


1826, December 25 (Sindh)


1948, September 29 (Karachi)


Gujarati/Sindhi Indo-Aryan


Politician: Governor-General of Pakistan (1947-1948)


All-India Muslim League (1913-1944), Pakistan Muslim League (1944-1948)



Jinnah, originally a member of the Indian National Congress, increasingly distanced himself from the movement in 1920's and 1930's. In 1940 his All-India Muslim League passed a resolution calling for a Muslim state separate from India. The British, facing threats to their empire from Italy, Germany and Japan saw the League as a counter to the increasingly militant Congress. In 1942, after Congress launched its 'Quit India' campaign, the British began to negotiate seriously with Jinnah on the basis of creating an autonomous Muslim Dominion in direct relationship with Great Britain.

In exchange for his support during the war, Jinnah was rewarded with his own state of Pakistan, formed out of most of the Muslim majority provinces and Princely States of the British Raj. The autonomy Pakistan enjoyed was severely limited and the Eastern and Western provinces that made up the new Dominion were divided by the rest of British India. Jinnah served as the Viceroy and Governor-General of the Dominion of Pakistan for less than a year, dying in office.

Autonomous Pakistan, together with a greatly-enlarged Nepal, effectively isolated the heart of British India from its neighbours, most of which were under direct Japanese control or influence.