The Estonian Self-Administration, created after the conquest of the country from the Soviet Union by German forces in 1941, provided a model for limited national self-government under German rule.

The model proved more lasting than the institution itself. Estonia was handed from Germany to Finland at the close of the war and the Estonian Self-Administration became in effect the governering body for a new Finnish province. Estonia replaced Aland (which was surrendered to Sweden) as the ninth province of Finland under the leadership of Hjalmar Mae.

Known as Generalbezirk Estland under Germany, the region is now officially known as Peipsimaa or Peipusland or colloquially as Viro.