Reichsprotektorate Bohmen und Mahren/Czech and Moravian Reich Protectorates




Prag (Bohemia), Brunn (Moravia), Iglau (Protectorate as a whole)

Head of State

Reichsprotektor acting on behalf of the German Reichsprasident: Konstantin von Neurath (1939-1953), Arthur Seyss-Inquart (1953-1964), Walter Becher (from 1964)

Head of Government

State President (Bohemia) Jan Rys-Rozsevac, State President (Moravia) Jaroslav Krejci


Established as a German Protectorate in March 1939 following the dissolution of the Czechoslovak Republic. After the war, the Protectorate was officially separated into two distinct national regions.

Unlike the neighbouring Slavic and Baltic states of Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania and Latvia, the regions of Bohemia and Moravia were not specifically envisioned as German colonies. Instead, under the title of the Protectorate, a unique system of power-sharing was established, with extensive collaboration between the new German subjects of Bohemia and Moravia, and their masters.

The sole legal political body in the Protectorates is the Narodni Sourucenstvi (NS), divided into the Ceska and Moravske Narodni Sourucenstvi. Cultural organisation for the region's minorities (primarily Germans and Slovaks) are also permitted. Cadres of former Czech fascist organisations form a small part of the administration, but Germany has favoured effective administrators over ideological sympathisers.

Radola Gajda, leader of the most significant fascist party of the Czechoslovak period, the Narodni Obec Fasisticka (National Fascist League) left the Protectorate to take part in the administration of the Russian heimatstaat in the former Soviet Union. The activities of Gajda and the remaining NOF cadres in the Protectorate are limited to propagandising for Czech and Moravian emigration to the 'virgin lands' of the former USSR.

The first State President of Bohemia-Moravia was Emil Hacha, with Alois Elias serving as his prime minister. Both men were executed by the German occupiers due to ongoing contacts with the Czech resistance. Emanuel Moravec, Education Minister and founder of the NS, and Jaroslav Krejci were their replacements. Upon partition Krejci became leader of Moravia. The position of leader of Bohemia went to Jan Rys-Rozsevac, leader of the banned Vlajka fascist movement. A rival of Moravec, he secured his position through the mobilisation of his supporters in favour of Germany and the Axis war effort.

Real power however lay in the hands of the Reich Protector. The first man to hold this position was Konstantin von Neurath. He was followed by a native of Iglau, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, a veteran of the nationalist struggle in Austria, architect of the Anschluss and the man regarded by many as the true heir to the Fuehrer. The Minister of State for Bohemia-Moravia was another local, Karl Hermann Frank, who had effectively controlled the Protectorate during the nominal rule of von Neurath.

Since occupation in 1939, the population of the Protectorate has shrunk by several millions. This is due mainly to voluntary emmigration (to the former Russia, the former Dominican Republic, Brazil or elsewhere), forced relocation (to the conquered east), voluntary or forced Germanisation, and natural attrition, due to the straightened circumstances (lack of medical facilities, insufficient waste management, etc) of the Protectorates.

The Protectorates remained mostly peaceful during the war, though each small act of resistance was met with massive retaliation by the Germans. A period of liberalisation under the rule of Baldur von Schirach was reversed somewhat under his successor, Albert Speer.