Argentine Republic/Republica Argentina




Buenos Aires

Head of State

Roberto Maria Ortiz (1938-1942), Ramon Castillo Barrionuevo (1942-1943), Pedro Pablo Ramirez (1943-1946), Juan Domingo Peron (1946-1974), Jose Lopez Rega (1974-1975), Jorge Rafael Videla (from 1975)

Ruling Party

Recuperacion Nacional (1943-1957), Movimiento Nacionalsocialista Tacuara (from 1957)

Head of Government

Ramon Castillo Barrionuevo (1938-1942), Robustiano Patron Costas (1942-1943), Saba Hector Sueyro (1943), Edelmiro Julian Farrel Plaul (1943-1946), Eduardo Lonardi Doucet (1946-1954), Pedro Eugenio Arumburu (1954-1967), Juan Carlos Ongania (1967-1975), Roberto Levingston Laborda (from 1975)

System of Government

Peronist - military rule with originially large elements of Italian fascism and Latin American populism, and smaller elements of National Catholicism and German National Socialism increasingly dominating


Coup of April 1943 brings a pro-Axis military junta to power. Argentine influence extends over neighbouring states, especially over Chile from the October 1944 coup, and over Paraguay from the Civil War of March-August 1947. Brazil serves as both competitor and collaborator under the New State regime of Getulio Vargas.

The leader of the 1943 coup was Pedro Pablo Ramirez, Major General of the Army and founder of the Guardia Nacional fascist militia. He stood aside in 1946 to build the mass base of his movement, renamed Recuperacion Nacional, and to allow the popular Labour Minister Juan Domingo Peron to assume the presidency. Peron had garnered public affection for his relief work after the San Juan Earthquake of January 1944, his successful expedition into Chile in October 1944 and his ameliorative policies toward Argentina's working class.

As president, Peron was forced to balance his popularism with concessions to the Argentine establishment, as in his choice of conservative vice-presidents and his extension of the role of the Catholic Church over education. Peron relied on the support and advice of Mario Amadeo in balancing the interests of the traditional Argentine elite with his more modest supporters.

In 1954, he was forced to purge a large section of his supporters due to their involvement in a planned coup, a plot which involved elements of the armed forces of Brazil and Bolivia. After his death, Peron's nominated successor Jose Lopez Rega was ousted by another military man, Jorge Videla.

Under Peron, Argentina sent large numbers of troops into Paraguay to support the government of Higinio Morinigo during a seven month long uprising by Communists and Liberals backed by the US. Argentina also supported similar civilian-military governments in Chile and Uruguay and, to a lesser extent Bolivia. General Eduardo Lonardi Doucet, who had served in Chile as Military Attache from 1942, was instrumental in installing General Carlos Ibanez del Campo.

Peron also secured the annexation of the Malvinas Islands from Great Britain, through negotiations with British Premier Sir Oswald Mosley via the Duce of Italy, Benito Mussolini. These negotiations were later repudiated by Mosley's successor as Premier, Enoch Powell, who fought a brief, unsuccessful war to reconquer the islands.