Alfred Matthes formed the Western Samoan National Socialist Party in 1934. As leader of the movement, Matthes did his best to promulgate a liberal interpretation of Nazi race doctrine, including Polynesians as part of the broad ‘Caucasian’ race. Matthes had a wife of Tongan origin, something which later earned him the contempt of the mainstream Nazi party in Germany. The fact that his post-war protege and nominated heir, Roy Courlander, was of Lithuanian origin, also somewhat damaged his credentials with mainstream Nazism.

However his liberal policy gained Matthes a substantial following after the war when Western Samoa was fully integrated into the Dominion of New Zealand, alongside a number of other previously European-controlled islands in the Pacific.

Matthes' Western Samoan Nazi Party merged with the New Zealand Social Credit Association and the New Zealand Legion to form the New Zealand National Socialist Party in 1953. Matthes became the first NZNSP Prime Minister two years later.